1) вручную; ручным способом; с использованием ручных приспособлений Например: bring up by hand — выкормить рожком, искусственно In the ancient and medieval worlds coins were made by hand. — В древние и средние века монеты изготавливались вручную 2) из рук в руки Например: This envelope should be sent by hand. — Этот конверт следует отправить с нарочным. The Maltese have a delightful habit of carrying their political leaders by hand over the heads of the crowd. — У мальтийцев есть удивительная традиция носить своих политических лидеров на руках, передавая их над головами толпы.
(by hand (также by the hand of somebody)) не по почте, с нарочным, с оказией Например: I send this as usual by the hand of Williamson minor. (I. Murdoch, An Accidental Man) — Это письмо передаст, как обычно, юный Уильямсон. The letter was sent by hand. — Письмо было послано с оказией.
1. with the hands or a hand-worked implement (as a tool or pen) rather than with a machine
2. from one individual directly to another
Example: deliver the document by hand
1. Said of an operation (especially a repetitive, trivial, and/or tedious one) that ought to be performed automatically by the computer, but which a hacker instead has to step tediously through. "My mailer doesn't have a command to include the text of the message I'm replying to, so I have to do it by hand." This does not necessarily mean the speaker has to retype a copy of the message; it might refer to, say, dropping into a subshell from the mailer, making a copy of one's mailbox file, reading that into an editor, locating the top and bottom of the message in question, deleting the rest of the file, inserting ">" characters on each line, writing the file, leaving the editor, returning to the mailer, reading the file in, and later remembering to delete the file. Compare eyeball search. 2. By extension, writing code which does something in an explicit or low-level way for which a presupplied library routine ought to have been available. "This cretinous B-tree library doesn't supply a decent iterator, so I'm having to walk the trees by hand."